Our health and potatoes.
Chemical composition. Tubers contain an average of 76.3% water and 23.6% dry matter, including 17.5% starch, 0.5% sugar, 1 2% protein, about 1% of mineral salts. Maximum dry matter content of tubers is 36,8%, starch 29.4%, protein 4.6%. Especially important to note that the potato is also a source of many vitamins – B1, B2, B6, PP, K and carotenoids. In potato tubers contain vitamin C (13 to 20 Mg to 200 g). In all parts of the potato found a steroid alkaloid solanine, especially a lot of it in the shoots (from 565 to 4070 mg%) and flowers (from 1580 to 3540 mg%), currently found in sprouts and leaves it contains six different glycoalkaloids instead of one solanine, as previously thought. This α-, β-, γ-solanine and α-, β-, γ-chaconine
Pharmacological properties. Experimental studies of solanine, carried out by different authors, relate mainly to the toxicological properties of (AA Urutyunyan, Clarus, Perles), whereas its pharmacological characteristics studied less.
In the laboratory, pharmacy VILAR been shown (A. Turov, KE Ryzhova) that solanine when administered into rats with low toxicity, no less effective than cortisone.
In the literature there are indications that in the experiment the infusion of the flowers of potatoes lowers blood pressure and stimulates respiration.
Application. Solanine contained in potatoes, the chemical structure and action like cardiac glycosides and cortico-steroids, or at intake has kortizonopodobnoe action in allergic and stressful conditions of an organism. Fresh potato juice normalizes gastric juices, eliminates heartburn and relieves dyspepsia, promotes scarring ulcers gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Starch is used for various gastrointestinal diseases as a diuretic, enveloping and anti-inflammatory agent, as well as for headaches, and it is used as a basis for powders and filler in the manufacture of powders and tablets. Fresh potato slices treated with eczema, hot potato vapor (inhalation) – Qatar upper respiratory tract, in particular bronchitis.
In 1736 cultivated in Russia. The potato is a staple food for humans. Active principle of potatoes are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, citric and malic acids, vitamins B1, B2, PP, C, etc. In the light of solanine in tubers formed. Potatoes – a dietary staple. It is used in gastritis with high and low acidity of gastric juice as a diuretic, laxative remedy – for stomach ulcers and intestine. In China, potatoes treat skin diseases, metabolic disorders, encephalitis. Starch obtained from potato tubers, – is a delicate white odorless powder, soluble in hot water and bad – in the cold. Starch is used externally as a powder and the powder. Inside are a form of mucus to protect the nerves from exposure to toxic and irritating substances.
Clinical and Experimental Department of the Institute of Food notes the high healing properties of potato juice with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Take the new crop potatoes, washed, scraped very thin skin, tuber Grate. When you receive a glass of juice 4 times a day – within 20 days, subject to medical diet was a decrease of pain, heartburn, lower acidity, weight gain.
Isolated from potato preparation “inhibin” heals wounds, burns, ulcers, inflammation of the skin. Platelets freshly potato applied to the trophic ulcers, pustular lesions. Inhalation of vapors boiled tubers helps with coughs, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract infection (Altymyshev, 1976).
Potato is one of the most common foods. Tubers have anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antispasmodic, diuretic. Derived from potato starch has emollient, enveloping, anti-inflammatory effect. Potato juice inhibits the secretion of digestive glands. Due to the presence of acetylcholine in the tuber, the constant use of potato juice helps reduce blood pressure. Tubers occupy a leading position in the dietary. They are included in the diet of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, diseases obmenaveschestv and gastrointestinal tract.
From cosmetics to apply facial masks made with boiled potatoes in their skins, mixed with butter, cream or sour cream. Particularly useful are such masks for dry skin and treatment of sunburn (Sokolov, 1984).
In Ireland, in 1672 a fifth of the population was fed only potatoes. Potato peelings are used for cooking soup and water in which cooked potatoes, used for bathing with sprains and broken limbs.
From ancient times, people are widely used against scurvy potatoes, raw potatoes fed scrofulous and rachitic children (Heaven, 1970).
According to the latest scientific data, the potato is 6 different glycosides. One of them – solanine, which has found application in scientific medicine. It causes a persistent and prolonged decrease in blood pressure, increases the amplitude of the pulse wave, a 30% decrease in heart rate, lowers blood sedimentation rate, pain sensitivity, and has protivoshokovym effect on burns (Turov, 1974).
When used topically (applied to the skin and mucous membranes), solanine has desensibiliruyuschee effect on patients with allergic otitis.
A prolonged administration of starch in the human body decreases the amount of cholesterol in the liver and serum. Starch enables the exchange of bile acids, accelerates the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids and removing it from the body (Turov, 1983).
After the yeast and spinach potatoes is one of the leading places on the content of vitamin B6 – pyridoxine.
Especially in need of pyridoxine working with radioactive substances, the residents of large cities, where heavy air pollution, smokers and women during pregnancy – with toxicosis (Bobkov, 1986).
Methods of preparation and use of potatoes
1. Fresh juice is rubbed or passed through a meat grinder potato tuber is taken orally every day for 50 g 3 times daily before meals.
2. Washed and wiped dry the potatoes with the skin rubbed with a grater, squeeze the juice with starch. Recommended to drink half a cup on an empty stomach in the morning and evening in the form of a freshly prepared.
More information about the healing power of potato
What is nice and rich kartofelKartofel – universal culture. The plant is edible and, and feeding, and maintenance. He calories: no wonder it is called the second bread. On the contents of potatoes calories in 2 times more than carrots and cabbage 3 times. It is a source of carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins that contains mineral salts of calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sulfur and other elements so necessary for normal life of man.
The potato belongs to the plants with so-called type of carbohydrate metabolism. While carrots, beets, etc. accumulate carbohydrates in the form of sugar, potato stores them in a club in the form of starch. In the human stomach starch decomposes slowly and not created by an excess of sugar is deposited as fat.
As food potatoes well and fully digested and does not burden the stomach insoluble ballast. That’s why it shows in the diet impaired people.
Under the action of saliva, gastric juice and heat until potatoes are decomposed dextrin (substances having shielding property) and does not cause irritation of digestive tract (which is not the bread, vegetables and fruit). This explains the efficacy of an aqueous solution of starch and kissels with gastric disorders and pain.
In potato tubers on dry matter from 0,1 to 0,9% of pectin, not counting those that are part of the starch (for comparison, in the pectin-rich apples and plums them to 1,4-1,5%) . Pectin requires a person to rid the body of harmful substances.
Our generation is only from the literature is aware of the terrible epidemics that are mowed in the Middle Ages the population of entire cities. And if the plague, cholera, Spaniard carried off indiscriminately urban and rural populations, then> Scurvy was a scourge of seafarers.
Exploring the history of scurvy, a German professor V. Hess noted that scurvy struck the peoples of Europe in the spring in years when it was preceded by a ‘bad potato harvest. What is the saving power of the potato? It turns out that it contains ascorbic acid (vitamin C), the ability to prevent and cure scurvy. If we consider that in a kilogram of potatoes contain 30-40 mg of ascorbic acid (and in freshly harvested – even 130-160 mg), it becomes clear: the need for vitamin C can be bridged through the potato.
During storage in potato tubers vitamin content decreases slightly, but their cutting and putting in the water (and even better in the weak saline solution), conditions are created for the enrichment of tubers due to vitamin C synthesis of wound (this may increase up to 20-50%) . Increasing amounts of ascorbic acid and transfer potatoes from cold storage in a warm room with a temperature of 10-15 ° C.
Lack of vitamin C in the body raises a number of disorders and diseases. For example, when ascorbic gipoavitaminoze (for example, excessive consumption of animal fats) observed the deposition of cholesterol plaques, increased blood pressure. Known and another: the lower the level of ascorbic acid in the blood, so it vyshey cholesterol.
Typical for the residents of big cities illness – hypotension (low blood pressure) is caused by lack of vitamin B complex. Ascorbic acid and plays a positive role: it enhances the work of many vitamins, including the B2, B12, P, folic acid.
By participating in the synthesis of epinephrine, ascorbic acid reduces muscle fatigue, helps to increase saliva antibacterial substances lysozyme, increases resistance to intestinal infections to cold and heat, contributes to a better healing of wounds. It neutralizes the negative effects streptotsida, sulfonamides and other drugs, has a protective effect at higher doses of radiation, as well as by ingestion of nitrites and nitrates.
As in plants, humans ascorbic acid provides many protective reaction. For example, a reaction to increased noise, during which there is enhanced flow it in connection with the formation of adrenaline in the body.
With all these features daily requirement of vitamin C for a healthy person is 70-80 mg. For a smoker, it should be increased to 300-500 mg per day due to the increase in its consumption.
Equally important is the other vitamins – B1, or, as it also called thiamine, is able to remove the physical and, perhaps, but not least, stress. When fatigue in the human body accumulates lactic and pyruvic acid, which inhibit nerve cells. Thiamine has the ability to neutralize them.
Thiamine is now seen as the antipode of carcinogenic metals, since it neutralizes them.
100 g of raw potato tubers contained from 30 to 100 and even 200 micrograms of thiamine. That’s more than cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, carrots, corn, green peas, apples and other fruits and vegetables. Surpass it as soon as peas, beans, and even nuts and meat.
30 percent of thiamine cocarboxylase potatoes presented – very active group of the enzyme carboxylase.
Daily intake of thiamine for women – 0,3-0,4, and for men – 1,7-1,9 milligram. Virtually all women can meet the needs of thiamine due to potato. For men, additional sources, especially for those engaged in mental labor.
Thiamine in potatoes is more stable and less is destroyed during cooking than in carrots, cabbage and other foods. Thus, in 100 g of mashed potatoes was found from 50 to 116 micrograms of vitamin B1, while in rice porridge thiamine is destroyed completely. He also is not afraid of the light and oxidizing action of oxygen, which can not be said, for example, on the ascorbic acid.
From Group B in potatoes are also vitamins B2 and B6. The content of vitamin B2 in the small-potatoes 40-60 micrograms per 100 grams of raw material (the daily rate for a man his 1.1 -1.2 milligrams), but among the vegetables slightly, he is second only to tomatoes and green crops (lettuce, spinach).
The potato is one of the leading crops for the content of vitamin B6 – pirodoksina. As well as other B vitamins, pirodoksin neutralizes various harmful substances, so need it most chemists, toxicologists, people working with radioactive compounds, the inhabitants of industrial centers suffering from air pollution and smokers for the neutralization of accumulating in the body when smoking cadmium. Needed it, and pregnant women, especially in toxicosis.
Vitamin B6 together with the available lysine in the roots helps to prevent dental caries and various skin lesions, a favorable effect on the exchange of proteins, fats, prevents the fatty liver.
There is a potato and vitamin P. The first of them – vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) is especially necessary knowledge workers, as well as patients who are taking antibiotics, sulfa, and anti-TB drugs. With the help of this vitamin reduces the toxic effects of lead and hydrogen sulfide, improves appetite, anemia, children can be cured.
The need for nicotinic acid by potato (when using its 300-400 g / day) can be satisfied by about 20%.
Another Vitamin – P combines up to 60 different nature of compounds with P-activity. In potatoes it contained more than the beet, carrot, swede.
At one of the highest not only among the plant, but also among the animal foods potato leaves by the presence in it paraminno-benzoic acid, which has neutralizing the action in case of poisoning by arsenic, antimony, mercury.
There is in him a small amount of vitamin K, and pantothenic acid, which regulates the nervous and endocrine systems. The potato is also a major supplier of mineral salts, a list which includes 32 items – nearly a third of the elements of the periodic table. This iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, boron, molybdenum, aluminum, nickel, arsenic, barium, sulfur, bromine, and such rare as lithium, tin, rubidium, cesium and radium.
Need only 300-400 grams of potatoes (or 200, but with milk) to make up for the daily needs of people in potassium (which is equal to 2,0-2,5 g). Potassium in our cells are particularly rich in the kidneys, brain and heart. With him is associated activity of muscles, nerves, heart: lack of potassium leads to a decline in strength, the weakening of breathing and heart function.
Especially great need for potassium in the body for various injuries, vomiting, diarrhea, increased consumption of salt, and mental and physical stress, increases its excretion from the body.
With potatoes you can fully maintain potassium balance in the body. In the tubers, he concentrated in the apical part and the skin. In grades Tempe, Table-19, Gatchina, 100 g of raw tubers contain up to 600-700 mg of potassium, but in Priekul’skaya early – only 400-500.
In the pulp of potato tuber is phosphorus. In combination with calcium, it forms a bone, but with the sugar and protein – nucleic acid. Phosphorus – an important element of the protoplasm of all living cells, a regulator of salt balance in the body. Although the phosphorus content in potatoes than in the cabbage, carrots and tomatoes, due to it can compensate for only 10-15% of the RDA (she 1,5-2,0 g).
Of all the mineral elements in the diet, the body needs, the two are constantly in short supply – it’s calcium and iron.
Tubers not rich in calcium, so while it is 60-70% in skin and is removed during cleaning. Compensate for the lack of body calcium by not only the potato (it can make no more than 2-3% of the demand for its daily norm – 800-1000 mg / person).
Their iron content, the tubers are second only to the pumpkin, beets, spinach, and are on a par with cabbage, green onions, carrots and cucumbers, and sometimes even surpass, especially in years with favorable climatic conditions.
Iron is involved in the formation of hemoglobin. Its deficiency causes anemia, or anemia. In humans, circulating about 80 grams of iron, 90% of which is exchanged in a closed cycle.
Pregnant and lactating women need for iron is higher in response to the need to ensure their growing bodies.
Daily rate of 15 mg of iron. Only the potato can make up from 15-20 to 60% of requirements (in wet years the content of iron and other mineral elements in the tubers can dramatically decrease).
It is known that iron compounds with malic, citric, ascorbic acid and other organic acids are more easily accessible and highly digestible forms. Potatoes, having a high content of these acids forms is readily absorbed into the body iron compounds.
Potato tuber enriches our body and copper, which, together with iron serves many protective functions. The highest concentration of copper was noted in the liver, is the barrier of our body against various harmful substances. Noted that the younger the organism, the better it accumulates copper in the liver (the child of three – six times larger than an adult). With copper-connected life of erythrocytes.
In combination with nickel copper increases phagocytic activity of white blood cells, helps reduce blood sugar as well as resistance to malignant tumors.
On the content of copper (0,3-0,7 mg per 100 g of tubers), potato is second only to fungi, surpassing fruits and vegetables.
In addition to the above-mentioned metals potatoes in our body zinc (up to 10% RDA), involved in the processes of growth and reproduction, to 15-17% rate of consumption of magnesium (element, especially needed for patients with kidney disease – nephritis), cobalt promotes the formation of almost all the B vitamins, and 30% required amount of manganese involved in the utilization of fats.
The above data suggest that the potato is of great importance as preventive and therapeutic products.