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Vaccinations: Pros and Cons

In the Middle Ages, doctors began to think, how to prevent such outbreaks. In the 12 century to prevent smallpox in China used the wound, ie discharge from the wounds of cows suffering from smallpox, which for man is not dangerous. Edward Jenner in 1796, first instilled vacciniform man, hence the term vaccination turned that from the Latin «vacca» – a cow. And from the start of 1798 in Europe is carried out mass vaccination against smallpox. Nevertheless, the scientific basis for immunization were formed only after a hundred years through the work of Louis Pasteur.

Vaccinations: Pros and Cons

Vaccinations do from diseases such as smallpox, cholera, typhoid fever, plague, and many others. Outbreaks took the lives of most people.

In the Middle Ages, doctors began to think, how to prevent such outbreaks. In the 12 century to prevent smallpox in China used the wound, ie discharge from the wounds of cows suffering from smallpox, which for man is not dangerous. Edward Jenner in 1796, first instilled vacciniform man, hence the term vaccination turned that from the Latin «vacca» – a cow. And from the start of 1798 in Europe is carried out mass vaccination against smallpox. Nevertheless, the scientific basis for immunization were formed only after a hundred years through the work of Louis Pasteur.

What is vaccination? To answer this question, we must be aware of the work of our immune system. Let us briefly describe how the immune system.

The immune system is our body guard, which protects it from foreign biological material. Recognizing foreign substances, it eliminates them, while “remembering” the answer to, if necessary, use it when dealing with a similar virus. In the absence of the immune system we would have been easy prey for viruses, fungi, bacteria and helminths. Slight skvoznyachok affected would be difficult to infectious disease deaths. And so it happens in people with immunodeficiencies, immune functions are weak. And it does not matter it is innate or acquired (for example HIV infection) – the effect is the same.

One of the main tasks of immunity, as already mentioned – recognition of “native” and “alien” biological substances. Since the native biological substance the immune system may still in the womb, the knowledge of “alien” inherits, as well as many other genetic qualities. In this case it is called a hereditary or innate immunity. Still, with “alien” biological agent immunity often have to learn through direct contact with him. That would be known as acquired immunity, it is not as resistant as congenital and not hereditary. Acquired immunity is divided into two types, for active and passive. In order to acquire active immunity, a person must have had the disease or a vaccination (vaccinated).

The principle of vaccines is that the body is a separate agent, or a part of a pathogen, it can be proteins or polysaccharides. Can also be used whole killed or live weak pathogenic substance or vaccine obtained by genetic engineering. Thus, the body itself produces antibodies necessary to allow fast enough to overcome the infection. Active immunity can operate from a year or more, for example, vaccination against influenza has 1 – 2 years, measles – for decades, from the chicken pox during the whole life.

Passive immunity occurs when the introduction of antibodies into the body ready another person or animal. Methods of acquisition of passive immunity can be both a natural way, on the basis of the embryo receives maternal antibodies through the placenta. So artificially by injection of immunoglobulin, acquired from human serum, has experienced the disease, or again the same way obtained by genetic engineering.

When vaccination may be side effects, the most common of them – this is an allergic reaction. Allergy is manifested in the skin in the form of redness at the injection site, as possible itching, peeling skin. It may also be more serious reaction, such as increased body temperature, tremors, rapid reduction in blood pressure. Out of fear of side effects, many do not vaccinate. But now the vaccines, which are themselves micro-organisms, have replaced the drugs, which contain components of microorganisms. This is a milder version of the vaccine, it is virtually no side effects, and does not cause the disease in debilitated people. This type of vaccines – an entirely new phase in the development of vaccination.

But, despite the continuous improvement of methods of vaccination, many people still do not want to be vaccinated. Some people immunizations are contraindicated, some suggest that they are contraindicated, someone his own, the fundamental view of vaccination. Many arrogantly think that they are not ill, or believe that the vaccine – is more evil than the disease itself.

Do or not to vaccinate – a personal matter. But we should not forget how difficult the many infectious diseases, what serious complications they can cause, especially among children and the elderly. These serious diseases as polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, if left untreated, lead to disability from 100 percent probability, and sometimes even death. It is worth considering that children risk to get these infections is very high, so we have no right to risk their health. After vaccination against these diseases risk to get almost zero, is not dangerous, even contact with the source of infection. The treatment of these diseases is very long, quite expensive. Therefore, to better secure with vaccinations, than trying to recover. According to foreign studies, direct costs to preventive measures in the form of vaccinations, ten times less than the treatment of the disease. Thus, should still refuse vaccination? Of course, it must decide every man. But before we come to some decision, weigh the pros and cons, and consider where the risk is, and where the benefits.

The risk with vaccination increases in the following situations:

- Wrong dosage carefully selected vaccine;

- Wrongly chosen technique of immunization;

- Violated the rules of sterilization equipment;

- Violated ways to store and transport vaccine;

- Compromised the sterility of the vaccine;

- Discourteous contraindications.

Prevent the development of side effects are possible if pre-take antihistamine, but only after consultation with the doctor.

Vaccination is contraindicated in such cases:

- Pregnancy

- Immunodeficiency states;

- If there was already a reaction to previous administration of the vaccine in the form of increase in body temperature above 40 degrees C;

- During exacerbation of chronic illness or disease in the acute form;

- An immunosuppressive therapy

In other situations, the probability of harm from vaccination tends to zero.

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