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Anemia Pathophysiology

Anemia Pathophysiology. Hemoglobin present inside the red blood cells normally carries oxygen from lungs to the tissues and anemia causes hypoxia in organs.

Anemia is a clinical condition in which total number of red blood cells or the quantity of hemoglobin in blood declines than the normal level so the oxygen binding ability of hemoglobin is decreased. Hemoglobin present inside the red blood cells normally carries oxygen from lungs to the tissues and anemia causes hypoxia in organs.

Anemia is caused in different ways including blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, high rates of red blood cell destruction. Heavy menstrual periods or bleeding in digestive tract can cause blood loss. Surgery or cancer can cause blood loss. Lack of red blood cell production may occur in acquired and inherited conditions.

Symptoms for anemia occur in a person like feeling tired, headache, difficulty in breathing, weakness, overall pallor, depression, dizziness, some additional symptoms may also include like hair loss, malaise, worsening of heart problems etc.

Anemia of impaired production can occur due to disturbance of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. This symptom can cause pure red cell aplasia followed by aplastic anemia which affects all types of blood cells. Insufficient production of erythropoietin causes renal failure and anemia of endocrine disorders can also crop up. Disturbance of proliferation and maturation of erythroblasts is responsible for the appearance of pernicious anemia which is a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting in impaired vitamin B12 absorption. This form of megaloblastic anemia also causes anemia of folic acid deficiency.

Incidence of anemia reflect the presence of bone marrow failure or excessive loss of red blood cells or both. Bone marrow failure can occur due to nutritional deficiencies, toxic exposures, or mostly due to unknown causes. Red blood cells can be lost through hemorrhage or hemolysis (destruction) in the latter case, the problem can be caused by the effects of red blood cells that do not correspond to the resistance of normal red blood cells or due to several factors outside the red blood cells that causes red blood cell destruction.

Red blood cell lysis (dissolution) occurs mainly in the phagocytic system or in the reticuloendothelial system, especially in the liver and spleen. As a byproduct of this process the bilirubin that is formed in phagocytes will enter the bloodstream. Any increase in red blood cell destruction (hemolysis) immediately reflected by increasing plasma bilirubin (normal concentration of 1 mg / dl or less; levels of 1.5 mg / dl result in jaundice in the sclera.
Anemia is a blood disease characterized less low levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (erythrocytes). The function of the blood is carrying food and oxygen to all organs of the body. If the supply is less, then the intake of oxygen will be less. As a result, can inhibit the work of the vital organs, the brain One. The brain consists of 2.5 billion bioneuron cells. If capacity is lacking, then the brain will be like computer memory is weak, slow catch. And if it is damaged, can not be repaired.

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