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Glaucoma Nursing Care Plan : Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions

Glaucoma is a disease characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Increased pressure causes ischemic damage to the optic disc and nerve cells of the retina, with progressive loss of peripheral vision.

Glaucoma is a disease characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Increased pressure causes ischemic damage to the optic disc and nerve cells of the retina, with progressive loss of peripheral vision.

Increased IOP occurs when the flow out of aqueous humor inhibited in the anterior part of the eye. Aquos humor is secreted by the body silisre continue to provide nutrients to the lens.

Pathophysiology

Intraocular pressure is maintained by the drainage of aqueous humor production and continuous in the interior cavity. Glaucoma occurs when there are obstacles in the drainage of aqueous humor which causes an increase in intra-ocular pressure. If the pressure continues to increase eye damage can occur. Optic nerves, ganglia, and retinal nerve cells regenerate. Changes in mining prior to the loss of peripheral vision is the vision changes. If left untreated can cause blindness.

The assessment can be performed in patients with glaucoma, is as follows:

     History or presence of risk factors:
         Positive family history (believed to be associated with primary open-angle glaucoma)
         eye tumors
         intraocular hemorrhage
         Intraocular inflammation uveiti)
         Eye contusions from trauma.

     Physical examination by a general assessment on the eyes may indicate:
     For primary open angle
     Reported a slow loss of peripheral vision (tunnel view)
     For primary angle closure:
         Sudden occurrence of severe pain in the eye is often accompanied by headache, nausea and vomiting.
         Complaints ray halo, blurred vision, and decreased perception of light.
         Pupils are being fixed by the sclera and redness due to inflammation of the cornea looks cloudy.

     Diagnostic examination
         Tonometry is used to measure intra-ocular pressure. Glaucoma is suspected when IOP greater than 22 mmHg.
         Goniockopy allows viewing directly to distinguish between the anterior chamber angle closure glaucoma and open angle glaucoma.
         Ophthalmoscopy allows the examiner to see direct optic disc and the internal structure of the eye.

     Assess client’s understanding of the condition and the emotional response to the condition and plan of action.

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