rss
0

How to Diagnose Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder because of improper use of hormone insulin, is recognized as a common disease and needs awareness of human population. Common symptoms are blurry vision, infections, irritability, polydipsia, polyphegia, polyuria, poor wound healing and weight fluctuation. The FPG and OGTT test are the methods for diagnosing diabetes based on Blood glucose level.

How to diagnose Diabetes

Rakhi Sharma and Awadhesh Kishore*

Institute for Development of Technology for Rural Advancement, Mathura-281004 (INDIA)

*Sarvoday Mahavidyalaya, Chaumuhan-281406, Mathura (INDIA)

Summary:

Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder because of improper use of hormone insulin, is recognized as a common disease and needs awareness of human population. Common symptoms are blurry vision, infections, irritability, polydipsia, polyphegia, polyuria, poor wound healing and weight fluctuation. The FPG and OGTT test are the methods for diagnosing diabetes based on Blood glucose level.

Keywords:

Awareness, Blood glucose, Diabetes, Diagnosis, Factors, FPG, Health, Insulin, OGTT, Risk, Symptoms, Type 2.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses hormone insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches, and other carbohydrates into energy. Diabetes mellitus show the symptoms as constant high levels of blood glucose.

Types of diabetes:

There are three main types of diabetes:

- Type 1 diabetes

- Type 2 diabetes

- Gestational diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2:

1. Blurry vision: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome causes blurry vision.

2. Increased fatigue: Inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose results in fatigue.

3. Infections: The body signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar, due to suppression of immune system, by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or urinary tract infection.

4. Irritability: Irritability, which makes us feel tired and uneasy, because of high blood sugar causing inefficient glucose supply to the brain and other body organs

5. Polydipsia: Patient feels thirsty as glucose level increases in blood.

6. Polyphegia: To cope up with high glucose levels in blood, body produces insulin which leads to increase hunger.

7. Polyuria: Frequency of urination increases as glucose level increases in blood.

8. Poor wound healing: Flourishing of white blood cell is resisted by high blood sugar which is found responsible for body immune system. Wound healing is not at good pace in diabetic patients.

9. Weight fluctuation: In common, due to various factors like polyuria, glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein, weight loss increases. However in few cases may show weight gain due to increased appetite was also observed.

Diagnosis:

1. The FPG test is preferred for diagnosing diabetes because of its convenience, accuracy and low cost. The person having glucose levels either 99 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or below, is normal or non-diabetic, 100 to 125 has a form of pre-diabetes called impaired fasting glucose (IFG) meaning an increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes but does not have it yet, and 126 or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means he has diabetes.

2. OGTT is more sensitive in comparison to FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but is less convenient to administer as it requires fasting for at least 8 hours before diagnosis. A person having blood glucose level 139 mg/dL or below is said to be normal, 140 to 199 is pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and 200 and above confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means he has diabetes.

Factors increasing risk of diabetes:

A person aged 45 or older should consider to get diagnosed for prediabetes or diabetes. Person younger than 45 should consider to get diagnosed if he is overweight, obese, or extremely obese and has one or more of the following risk factors:

1. He has a parent, brother, or sister to be diabetic.

2. He is being treated for high blood pressure.

3. He is having a condition called acanthosis nigricans (a dark, velvety rash around the neck or armpits).

4. He is having a history of cardiovascular disease.

5. He is having an HDL, or “good,” cholesterol level below 35 mg/dL.

6. He is having high blood pressure-140/90 mmHg or above.

7. He is having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

8. He is having positive IFG or IGT on previous testing.

9.  He is having triglyceride level above 250 mg/dL.

10. He is physically inactive.

11. His family background is being African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander.

12. She is giving birth to a baby being diagnosed with gestational diabetes.

13. She is giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.

See also http://expertscolumn.com/content/how-diagnose-diabetes, http://healthmad.com/conditions-and-diseases/how-to-diagnose-diabetes/, http://www.bukisa.com/how-to/diagnose-diabetes

0
Liked it
RSSPost a Comment
comments powered by Disqus
-->