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Human Skeleton

Human skeleton form bone that connects the tendons and joints. The number of bones in the human skeleton exceeds two hundred. Skeleton can be divided into: the vertebral column, rib cage, skull, upper limbs, with the shoulder girdle, lower extremity with pelvic girdle.

Functions of the skeleton are the support and movement, the bones – this is some leverage, which are driven by the muscles. Skeletal muscles, bones and their connections and form a musculoskeletal human body. 

Skull are paired and unpaired bones, connecting them together seams. In the skull there are two divisions – the brain and face. Brain consist of eight bones: 4 unpaired: occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal, and 2 twin – the parietal and temporal lobes.Occipital bone – a rear wall of the skull and its foundation, it has a foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord connects to the head. 

Front face skull is formed by the upper jaw, formed from two fused maxillary bone, as well as through the nasal bones, vomer (unpaired bone, involved in the formation of the nasal septum) as well as the lachrymal, zygomatic and palatine bones. Also part of the front of a lower jaw – movably articulated with the help of bone joints. 

The spinal column is a pillar of the body. Vertebral column are 33-34 vertebrae is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal sections. In the first section seven vertebrae in the second – twelve in the third and fourth – five in the last – four or five. Each vertebra make up the body, the arc and the processes extending from it. There is a hole between the body and an arc, overlapping each other, these holes form a vertebral canal for the spinal cord. 

The most massive vertebrae – in the lumbar. A sacral vertebrae of fused together, forming a solid bone – the sacrum. At the very spine – two of the bend. Cervical and lumbar curves convexly facing forward, and the thoracic and sacral “look” back. 

Thorax form twelve pairs of ribs, thoracic vertebrae and sternum. With it, using cartilage connected the upper seven pairs of ribs, which are called – true. And reaching under them five pairs of ribs are called false, including the first, second and third pairs are connected with the cartilage which lies above the edge, forming a kind of arc, while the fourth and fifth pairs of cartilages are absent, and their front ends are free. Sternum same a flat bone located on the mid line of the chest, it consists of a handle, body and xiphoid process. 

The skeleton of the upper extremities of the shoulder girdle and the free extremities of hands. Shoulder girdle form scapula and clavicle – a pair of dice. Clavicle connected to the sternum and scapula. Skeleton of the free limbs – that shoulder, forearm and wrist. In the shoulder – a tubular upper arm, connecting with a shovel and a generator so the shoulder joint. 

In the forearm – two bones, ulna and humerus. They, along with the humerus form a complex elbow, along with the bones of the wrist – radio carpal joint. The hand of man consists of eight carpal bones that are arranged in two rows, five pastern bones, which form a palm and fourteen phalanges. In the thumb – two phalanges, while the rest – three. 

The skeleton of the lower limbs of the skeleton of the pelvic girdle and skeleton of the free limbs – legs. The pelvic ring is paired pelvic bones, each of which consists of three fused bones: the ilium, ischium and pubis. Pelvis and sacrum form a proper basin, where there is a part of the abdominal cavity. The pelvis protects them. 

The skeleton of the lower-free limbs – it’s hip, leg and foot. The thigh consists of a long tubular femur. Her head is in the upper part is a deepening of the pelvic bone, thus creating the hip joint. 

Shin – it’s big and small tibia. Together with the femur and patella, they form the knee joint. At the foot distinguish tarsal, consisting of seven bones (including the largest – the heel and packaging), metatarsals and phalanges. Shin bone connected to the metatarsals ankle. 

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