Myocardial infarction – an urgent condition that requires immediate medical intervention. It is extremely important to the timely detection of myocardial infarction on the basis of its major symptoms. Symptoms (signs) of myocardial infarction may be very specific, but can walk and other symptoms of the disease (atypical symptoms) or absent altogether. In this article we describe the most common clinical symptoms (signs) of myocardial infarction, as well as give a few examples of atypical manifestations of a heart attack.
Myocardial infarction is an acute condition which is characterized by necrosis of tissue section of heart muscle. Myocardial infarction can lead to suspension or heart failure, ventricular fibrillation, acute heart failure or other conditions that pose a real risk to the patient’s life.
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Early detection of myocardial infarction is very important to save the life of the patient. Symptoms of myocardial infarction depends on the size and localization of myocardial zone in the heart muscle and the characteristics of the patient.
Symptoms of a heart attack macrofocal
Macrofocal infarction is characterized by necrosis (necrosis), a large zone of infarction (heart muscle). In developing this form of myocardial infarction distinguish several stages, each characterized by a certain set of symptoms (signs). For recognition of myocardial infarction is important to know the manifestation of the disease at all stages of its development.
Prodrome of myocardial infarction (preinfarction angina) – is characterized by worsening of angina attacks (a form of ischemic heart disease): attacks are becoming longer, more painful, less responsive to medication. In the preinfarction period the patient may complain of anxiety, depression. Aggravation of angina (angina pectoris) should be immediately alerted and can cause immediate treatment to the doctor. Timely medical attention can help prevent the development of myocardial infarction.
The acute period of myocardial infarction
In some cases, preinfarction period is absent, and infarct develops directly from the acute period. The acute period of myocardial infarction should be after precoronary. This period is characterized by the development of myocardial infarction (necrosis of cardiac muscle) itself.
Symptoms of a heart attack in the acutest period is:
Pain – occurs suddenly and lasts from 30 minutes to several hours (sometimes a whole day). Prolonged pain attack indicates that myocardial captures more and more areas of the heart muscle. The intensity of pain varies from case to case, but often severe pain, burning. When a heart attack the pain is localized behind the sternum and the left side of his chest. The pain spreads (irradiate) in the left shoulder in the back between the shoulder blades, in the neck and lower jaw. Very rarely the pain spread to the bottom of the lower iliac fossa or in the thigh, in such cases, the pain of a heart attack is often confused with pain in diseases of the abdominal cavity. In patients with diabetes, pain can be very weak (in diabetics suffer nerve fibers conducting pain impulse). Only in very rare cases, the pain of a heart attack absent.
The general condition of the patient – after the establishment of pain patient with a heart attack feels a strong weakness, anxiety, shortness of breath appear, the patient complains of shortness of breath. Skin sick pale, covered with cold sweat. Blood pressure initially increases and then decreases. There may be dizziness or even fainting.
Atypical symptoms of myocardial infarction
In some cases, the pain of myocardial infarction may be atypical in nature, that is localized in a different place (not behind the sternum). In such cases, the pain of a heart attack is often confused with pain characteristic of other diseases that can cause a late diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
There are, for example, abdominal form of myocardial infarction, in which the pain is localized in the upper abdomen and is accompanied by hiccups, vomiting, nausea, bloating and abdominal tenderness. In more rare cases, pain can be localized in the lower jaw, throat or neck.
In some cases, all symptoms of a heart attack may prevail breathlessness (asthmatic form) or cardiac arrhythmia (arrhythmic form). In the form of cerebrovascular infarction predominate symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, fainting.
Acute myocardial infarction period lasts from several days to a week or more. During this time zone is limited by the survivors of myocardial tissue. The main symptoms of this period may be signs of heart failure (shortness of breath, weakness) and fever (up to 38.5 C). During this period, heart attack may be repeated or may occur one of the complications of myocardial
Subacute infarction is characterized as the formation of the infarct zone and the replacement of dead scar tissue from the connective tissue. Subacute period lasts a month or more. At this time, the patient retained signs of heart failure, and the temperature is gradually disappearing. Also gradually increased blood pressure. After a heart attack in patients with hypertension and systolic blood pressure may rise slightly, but the diastolic remains high (”beheaded hypertension”). Attacks of angina after a heart attack can be stopped – this means that the artery blockage, which was the cause of angina completely blocked. If the attacks of angina preserved – there is a real risk of recurrence of a heart attack.
Postinfarction period following the subacute period of myocardial infarction and lasts about 6 months. During this time, in place of myocardial scar fully formed from the connective tissue, and the remainder of the heart muscle begins to work more efficiently. During this period, symptoms of heart failure fall off, and pulse and blood pressure returned to normal.
Symptoms melkoochagovogo myocardial infarction
Symptoms melkoochagovogo myocardial infarction in general weaker and blurred than the symptoms macrofocal infarction. When melkoochagovom myocardial pain syndrome is less pronounced, as well as less pronounced heart failure and reduction in blood pressure after a heart attack. Generally melkoochagovy myocardial tolerated much easier to a massive heart attack and is associated with lower risk of complications.