Types of Muscles, Muscle Movement, and The Effect of Exercise on The Muscles

A document about the types of muscles, their movement and the effect of exercise on them, in the human body. Its a college level work, and I think it might be useful for sport and science students.


Types of muscles

Voluntary muscles

These types of muscles are connected to the bones in the human body. The major functions of these muscles are to provide movement and stability, and it’s also called striated muscles, because of its stripy look under the microscope. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the central nervous system.

 Involuntary muscles

Involuntary muscles are the smooth muscles in the human body such as heart, liver, blood vessel and the other organ used in digestive system etc. And these muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

Cardiac muscles

These types of the muscles are usually found in the heart, it has a pacemaker, known as the Sino- atria node that controls the rate of the heartbeat. The rate of the heart beating is an involuntary action but can be influenced by factors such as stress, medications, illness and exercise. These influencing factors change the reaction of the nervous system and the hormones that are released, which results by a change in heart rate.

 Muscle movement

Skeletal system has a vast supply of nerve and blood vessels. It is of the many links between the body system which works together to help movement to occur.


Tendons are strong fibres attached to the muscles and work together with the bones to create movement. The nervous system controls the movement of the voluntary movements through the brain. When the signal passes through the nervous cells and into the parts of the body to the tendons from the brain, it creates movement in the tendons which enable the muscles to move.

Antagonistic pair

Muscles work together to create movement. There are two pairs of muscles; One is the primary mover which determine the movement of an action by contraction. And the other mover is antagonist which works together with the prime mover but it creates the opposite action. For instance, in the bicep curl; during the flexion phase the triceps enables the arm to bend at the elbow joint for the bar to move toward the shoulder girdle.

Types of movements

There are three main types of muscle contraction.

Isometric contraction

Is where the muscle stays the same length during contraction, or when the cavity is being carried out. A good example of the isometric contraction is during the crucifix position on the rings in gymnastics. Tension occurs in the muscle but the distance between the ends stay the same.

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