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Antioxidants in Edible Oil

Cooking oil is very susceptible to oxidative damage due to repeated frying process used in the food industry. These reactions will result in rancidity and make cooking oil and fried food products severely degraded.

Cooking oil is very susceptible to oxidative damage due to repeated frying process used in the food industry. These reactions will result in rancidity and make cooking oil and fried food products severely degraded.

Oxidation reaction at the beginning of cooking oil in the presence of free radical formation is accelerated by light, heat, metals (iron and copper), and an oxidizer in the fried food (such as chlorophyll, hemoglobin, and certain synthetic dyes). Another factor affecting the oxidation rate is the amount of oxygen, the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids in oils, and the presence of antioxidants.

To avoid degradation due to oxidation processes, the most powerful way is by the addition of antioxidants. Method of antioxidants to prevent or stop the oxidation process is as follows:

  1. Lowering the concentration of O2
  2. Capture the formation of compounds that can ionize hydrogen peroxide with the removal of
  3. Counteract the oxygen to prevent formation of peroxides
  4. Bind metal ions that can catalyze the formation of free radicals
  5. Breaking the chain reaction by preventing the transfer of hydrogen from fatty acid
  6. Neutralize the peroxide

In general, there are two types of antioxidants, which is the primary antioxidant and secondary antioxidant. Primary Antioxidants are compounds that can release hydrogen to stop the chain reaction of free radical formation, while the secondary antioxidant is a type of antioxidant that can prevent the work oxidant (pro-oxidant) so that propagation can be avoided. Secondary antioxidant for edible oil is citric acid which can be a metal chelating agent (sekuestran).

Antioxidants are deliberately added to the cooking oil to prevent rancidity. However, these antioxidants must meet the following requirements:

  1. Not harmful to health
  2. Color or flavor caused no unwanted
  3. Effective for use in low concentrations
  4. Fat-soluble
  5. Easily obtained
  6. Is economical

Examples of some antioxidants for edible oil that is Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), Propylgallate (PG), and Tertierbutyl hydroquinon (TBHQ). TBHQ has been proven as the most effective antioxidant for vegetable oils and animal fats because TBHQ is more resistant to heat than other antioxidants that have properties that carry through both and still have high antioxidant activity after heating.

Cooking oil without the addition of antioxidants was also available on the market. The cooking oil is to rely on natural antioxidants contained therein.

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