Human Skull

Human Skull.

Skull (cranium) protects the brain and the senses and creates resistance to the face, the initial divisions digestive system. Skull conventionally divided into the brain and front companies. Both offices are connected anatomically, but have different origins. In humans and other higher mammals rozvyvyetsya base of skull with cartilage. On this basis, the brain is located, is growing fast. Above him with connective tissue formed bone plate (membranous bone) that is not cartilaginous stage of development.

Human skull consists of 23 bones: eight and seven odd pair. Bones human skull roof flat: they consist of a thicker outer plates and a thin compact inner substance which is located between the sponge with red bone marrow and numerous blood vessels. The inner surface of the skull bones are many pits that are congruent to borozen Brains and brain. Many here borozen, which are located on blood vessels of the brain.

Human skull brain department built: frontal, occipital,

wedge, lattice (odd) and the parietal, temporal (pairs). Front Section includes: upper jaw, palate, Zygomatic, nasal, tearful, lower turbinate (pairs) and opener, the lower jaw. To carry the skull and hyoid bone. Ethmoid its vertical plate and upper and middle turbinate is part of the facial (nasal).

In the occipital bone (os occipitale) is the external occipital protuberance (vyyna attached to it a bunch). On both sides of this presentation is top vyyna line (it is attached trapezoid muscle back). Here is the bottom line vyyna, which are attached to large and small straight oblique muscle and upper head, belonging to pidpotylychnyh muscles.

At the bottom of a large lateral (occipital) hole occipital bones are paired oval occipital protuberance (vyrostky) – here are the joints to connect the skull surface and Atlanta. Ventral edge of the wedge bone zmykayetsya. On the underside of his ear is attached to a rear wall of the pharynx.

In the cuneiform bone is the body-centered is the Turkish saddle with pituitary fossa. Inside the body is the air cavity (sinus cuneiform), which combined with the nasal cavity. From the body side (lateral) away large wings (are almost fronatalniy plane), lateral and up – small wings hang down alar sprouts. On the basis of each wing are small holes of the optic nerve.

Ethmoid bone (os etmoidale) lies in front of the body cuneiform bone. This is the most fragile bone. It has horizontal and vertical (perpendicular) plates. Last passes in the cockscomb, which acts over a horizontal plate. At the plate is perpendicular spikes – the upper and lower turbinate. Horizontal (lateral) plate prodyryavlena and through its holes in the brain are olfactory openings. This plate is hung like a labyrinth of ethmoid bone, which are built of many airway charunok combined with each other and the nasal cavity. From the medial surfaces of labyrinthine turbinate away. Lateral wall labyrinth plate covered with paper (very thin and fragile) participates in the formation of eye socket.

Skull is the most difficult in the temporal (os temporale). It consists of 3 parts: the squamous, tympanic and pyramids (stony) located around the auditory passage. In the temporal bone is of hearing and balance. Pyramidal ends of sostsepodibnym process, which is located near subulate appendage. From the bottom of the outer surface scaly patch of temporal bone Zygomatic outgrowth away, which is based in the articular surface (ear) and mandibular oval pit, which includes ear of the mandible, producing temporomandibular mandibular joint.

Parietal bone (os parietale) looks like a quadrangular plate, convex outer surface which (in the center – parietal hump), internal – concave (it is arterial groove).

Frontal bone (os frontale) is a vertical and horizontal scales frontal part of that move into each other and form nadochni land. Frontal scales outside convex and bears the frontal hills – a characteristic feature of human skull. Frontal bone squama Rights broad and vertically. Above nadochnyh nadbrivni edges are arcs, when you come together to form the medial root of the nose above ground – hlabelu. Nadochnyy lateral edge continues in Zygomatic outgrowth, which combined with Zygomatic bone. Horizontal part of frontal bone (right and left) are located horizontally and form the upper surface of the eye socket. One by one these particles are separated lattice notch (located here ethmoid). In the frontal bone thickness (in the hlabely nadbrivnyh and arcs) are air sinus.

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