These are the test questions of a nursing unit. The answers are also given in brief. It is to be used as a guide for nurses who are revising for the final examination.
Nursing Quizz. Questions and Answers.
1. Briefly describe the central respiratory drive mechanism, to include neuronal control and the role of chemoreceptors.
The central and most important respiratory drive is increase in arterial CO2 tension (Pa,CO2). The increase in PaCO2 stimulates both peripheral central chemoreceptor, firing rate. Increased firing results in increased respiratory rate. In human beings, it is still difficult to distinguish the effect of CO2 on the central chemoreceptors from those on the peripheral chemoreceptors. Brief stimulation, as used in many tests of ventilatory control, does not give an appropriate index of more sustained hypercapnia, as happens in diseases.
2. Briefly explain hypercarbic and hypoxic respiratory failure and give an example of each.
Hypercarbic respiratory failure is due to the build up of PCO (hypercarbic)and is often associated chronic lung diseases like COPD.
Hypoxic respiratory failure is due to low paO2 (hypoxia). Here, there is the inability of getting the oxygen to the tissues. Example acute airway obstruction.
3. Briefly outline the significance of the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve.(A simple graph may aid your explanation).
Oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve offers an explanation on how the haemoglobin and oxygen become dissociated under pressures in the human body.
4. List four (4) pieces of equipment necessary for incubation and give a brief explanation of their function.
The word incubation refers to maintaining a system under specific conditions in order to promote growth. It has different meanings in chemistry, biology and neonatal intensive care Units.
Infants are cared for in incubators or “open warmers.” Nearly all are attached to various types of monitors. Some require respiratory support ranging from extra oxygen (by head hood or nasal cannula) to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation.
- Ventilators: To provide adequate ventilatory support to the neonate.
- Cardiac monitor: To monitor the neonate’s heart function.
- O2 sat; Pulse oxymetry
- Temperature probe: To monitor the patient’s temperature.
5. Tracheostomy tubes are an adjunct to airway management. Identify one type of tracheostomy tube and give a brief explantion of its characteristics.
There are many types of tracheostomy tubes. In Australia the shiley is the most used.
Side port: To inflate and deflate cuff.
Neck plate: To secure the tracheostomy around the neck of the patient.
Inner Cannula: A smooth cannula which lines the inner side of the tracheostomy. Can be removed and cleaned.
Temporary inner cannula: Inserted when the permanent cannula is being cleaned.
6. List the four classifications of hypoxia and give a cause of each.
Hypoxia is defined as a state of oxygen deficiency in the body which is sufficient to cause an impairment of bodily functions. Hypoxia is caused by the reduction in partial pressure of oxygen, inadequate oxygen transport, or the inability of the tissues to use oxygen and can be classified in four main groups.