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If Vitamin a Deficiency & Excess

Vitamin A (retinol) is mainly found in oily fish, liver, egg yolks, butter and cream. Green leafy vegetables and yellow vegetables contain carotenoids (eg beta-carotene), which gradually is converted by the body into vitamin A.

If Vitamin A Deficiency & Excess

Vitamin A (retinol) is mainly found in oily fish, liver, egg yolks, butter and cream. Green leafy vegetables and yellow vegetables contain carotenoids (eg beta-carotene), which gradually is converted by the body into vitamin A.

Most of the vitamin A is stored in the liver. One form of vitamin A (retinal) is a component of the photoreceptors (the nerve cells that are sensitive to light) in the retina of the eye. Another form of vitamin A (retinoic acid) plays a role in maintaining healthy skin, the lining of the lungs, intestines and urinary tract. Drugs related to vitamin A (retinoids), used to treat severe acne and still in research to treat certain types of cancer.

LACK OF VITAMIN A

Lack of vitamin A are found in some regions such as Southeast Asia, where rice is milled into rice (which contains very little vitamin A) is a staple food. Some diseases that affect the ability of the intestine to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins, increases the risk of vitamin A deficiency

Disease are:
– Celiac disease
– Cystic fibrosis
– Blockage of the bile ducts.

Surgery of the intestine or pancreas will also give the same effect. The first symptom of vitamin A deficiency is night blindness usually. Then there will be deposition of foamy (Bitot spots) in the whites of the eyes (sclera) and cornea can harden and form scar tissue (xeroftalmia), which can cause permanent blindness.

Childhood malnutrition on the right (marasmus and kwashiorkor), often accompanied by xeroftalmia, not because of a lack of vitamin A in foods, but also because of the lack of calories and protein inhibits the transport of vitamin A. Skin and lining of the lungs, intestines and urinary tract can be hardened.

Vitamin A deficiency also causes skin inflammation (dermatitis) and increase the likelihood of infection. Some patients experience anemia. On vitamin A deficiency, vitamin A levels in the blood decreased to less than 15 mikrogram/100 mL (normal levels 20-50 mikrogram/100 mL).

Vitamin A deficiency of vitamin A were treated with an additional 20 times the recommended daily dose for 3 days. Then followed by the administration as much as 3 times the recommended daily dose for 1 month. Once it is expected all symptoms are gone. Patients whose symptoms do not disappear within 2 months after treatment, should be evaluated for the possibility of malnutrition.

EXCESS VITAMIN A

Excess vitamin A can cause keracunanan, whether it occurs in one-time administration (acute toxicity) or in the long term (chronic poisoning).

Acute poisoning
Arctic explorers experienced drowsiness, irritability, headaches and vomiting within several hours after eating polar bear liver or seal liver, which contains vitamin A. Tablets containing vitamin A as much as 20 times the recommended daily dose, which is used to prevent and relieve skin diseases, sometimes causing similar symptoms, even if taken as directed.

Chronic poisoning
Chronic poisoning in children and adults that larger is usually the result of taking large doses of vitamin A (10 times the recommended daily dose) for months. Vitamin A poisoning can occur in infants within several weeks.

The initial symptoms of chronic poisoning are:
– A rare and coarse hair
– Loss of eyelashes on the part
– Chapped lips
– Dry and rough skin.

Severe headaches, increased pressure within the brain and general weakness ensues. The growth of bone and joint pain are common, especially in children. Liver and spleen may be enlarged. Babies born to mothers who took isotretinoin (vitamin A used to treat artificial skin disorders) during pregnancy can have birth defects.

Diagnosis of vitamin A toxicity is based on symptoms and high levels of vitamin A in the blood. Symptoms will disappear within 4 weeks after the immediate termination of the use of vitamin A added. Beta-carotene in vegetables such as carrots, changed slowly by the body into vitamin A and can be consumed in large quantities without causing toxicity. Although the skin will turn dark yellow (karotenosis), especially the skin on the palms and soles, but no other side effects.

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