For the majority of all adult males, the cerebrum of the brain is the largest part, usually weighing in at around two pounds in weight. Most of the other structures in the brain are around this cerebrum section, and it helps to control everything the human body does by using neurons. This includes controlling thinking, sensing, and even doing. It is the most well-developed part of the brain, and without it, complex processes such as language and speech wouldn’t take part. The cerebrum also controls personality, so if it becomes damaged in any way, it can change the entirety of your personality.
When taking a closer look at the cerebrum, you can see that it is divided into four lobes. It is also sectioned into two halves, and these are linked by something called the corpus callous - this is what passes the messages between the two different halves of the organ.
Bizarrely, the right side of the brain - cerebrum - controls the left side of the body, and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body.
It’s called the frontal lobe, and that’s just where it is - right at the front of your brain, your forehead. This part of the cerebrum controls a number of your functions, including:
- Problem solving
You can divide the frontal lobe further into three more sections - the motor area, the premotor area, and the prefrontal cortex.
Situated towards the back of the brain, the parietal lobe is found right behind the frontal lobe. This part of the brain is important for the following functions:
- Language functions (some, not all)
Found behind the temples, the temporal lobe is found on either side of your head. There are many functions controlled by this area of the cerebrum, and these include:
- Auditory processes
- Language functions
Found towards the back of your head, the occipital lobe is found at the lower back part of your cerebrum. This part of the brain is the home of more complex functions, such as interpreting signals sent by the retina of the eye, and also object recognition. Vision is a big part of this section of the brain.
Cerebrum - Layers
As well as the four lobes of the brain, the cerebrum can also be sectioned off into two layers. The outer layer is thicker, called the cerebral cortex, and the inner layer is the white matter.
When you hear people talking about the “grey matter” of the brain, they are referring to the exterior cerebral cortex layer, and this is what controls your personality, your movement coordination, and your thinking processes. The white matter, on the other hand, is a complex network of fibers, and these are what allow for messages to be passed on between the various section of the brain.
Further Brain Parts + Functions
There are two further parts of the brain, alongside the cerebrum, and these further parts are found in the cranium - lower on in the skull. You will find the brain stem here, and the cerebellum.
The brain stem is quite a complex little part of your brain, made up of various other parts - the medulla oblongata, the midbrain, and the pons. The are important for the homeostasis processes, and can also be in charge of movement, especially the limbs. It also controls various other important functions - alertness and sleeping, blood pressure, temperature, breathing and heart rate. If you suffer with an injury to the brain stem, it can result in death because of the major bodily functions it controls.
The cerebellum only amounts for about ten percent of your brain matter, and it is the smallest part of it also. Despite this, it is also home to more neurons than any other part. Your movement and balance is controlled here, alongside motor learning and timing, reflexes and posture.